What Is Bone Cancer?
Bone cancer generally occurs when an abnormal tissue or mass or tumor is formed in a bone. A tumor can be malignant which means it is rapidly growing and spreading to the adjacent parts of the affected area as well as the whole body. A malignant tumor is considered as cancerous. Cancer that initiates in the bones is generally rare.
Bone cancer can be divided into two groups:
- Primary Bone Cancer: The particular type of bone cancer is regarded as the most serious among other bone cancers. They are directly formed in the bones and its surrounding tissues, like cartilage.
- Secondary Bone Cancer: Cancer can metastasize or spread from another body part to the bones; this type of bone cancer is referred to as secondary bone cancer. Most of the bone cancers are secondary bone cancers.
Primary Bone Cancer can further be divided into four groups:
- Multiple Myeloma: Most of the bone cancers are considered as Multiple Myeloma (MM). It causes when the cancer cells start to grow in the bone marrow that forms tumors in a number of bones. Generally, older adults are affected by the Multiple Myeloma. Many people, who are associated with it, don’t require any kind of treatment.
- Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma): Osteosarcoma or Osteogenic Sarcoma basically attacks children as well as adolescents. Adults can also be affected by the particular type of bone cancer. It is mainly associated with the long bone’s tips in the legs and arms. It can also start from shoulders, hips or other locations. It mainly affects the hard tissue that forms the outer layer of the bones.
- Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma may develop in the thigh areas, pelvis, and shoulders associated with older adults. It is formed in the subchondral tissue that is regarded as the tough connective tissue between the bones. The particular type of cancer is regarded as the second most common type of primary cancer associated with the bones.
- Ewing’s Sarcoma: Ewing’s sarcoma is generally rare cancer. The particular type of bone cancer affects the body’s long bones such as legs, arms, and pelvis.
What Are The Symptoms Of Bone Cancer?
People, who are suffering from bone cancers, can have the following signs and symptoms. Sometimes, the bone cancer patients don’t even experience any of the following symptoms.
When a bone tumor starts to grow, it destroys the healthy bone tissues that can cause the following symptoms:
- Pain: The primary symptoms that are associated with bone cancer are swelling and pain, where the tumor is developed. It may become more severe with its advancement and so swelling can happen in its associated soft tissues also. The pain may be enhanced with the movement.
- Limping: If a tumor affected bone fractures or breaks, then it can develop a limp. It generally occurs in the advanced stages of bone cancer.
- Joint stiffness and swelling: If a tumor is developed in a joint, then the joint may become swelled, stiffed, or tendered and the movement can be very painful.
- Other rare symptoms: Sometimes, the bone cancer patients may be associated with fever, anemia, and weight loss (decreased RBC count).
What Are The Causes Of Bone Cancer?
The actual cause of bone cancer is not known, but some factors may be responsible for the increased risk of developing tumors in the bones. These factors are as follows:
Abnormal Cellular Growth: The characteristics of a healthy cell are division, replacement, and death. But, the abnormal cells don’t die; rather they form masses of tissues that may turn into tumors.
Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy, that is used to destroy cancer cells, can also be used in the treatment of bone cancers. But, some people, who have received the particular treatment, can develop osteosarcoma. The high radiation dosages may be responsible for this development.
Some of the major risk factors for bone cancer are as follows:
- Being a young adult or a child: Bone cancer is majorly observed in children or young adults below the age of 20.
- Past records of Paget's disease can be a reason for bone cancer.
- A family history of bone cancer can increase the chances of bone cancer.
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome history can create a risk of bone cancer. It is a rare genetic syndrome.
- Any past record of receiving radiation therapy.
What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Bone Cancer?
The Bone Cancer patients can do the following things as per the Doctor’s recommendations:
- Take proper massage therapy: Massage therapy is popularly used in treating patients who are suffering from bone cancer. But, tremendous care, as well as caution, must be required while this therapy is being done on a bone cancer patient, as their bones become fragile because of cancer and one incorrect move can worsen the situation rather than correcting it.
- Body Manipulation and Adjustments: Chiropractic techniques acupuncture, and osteopathic manipulations - all these forms are known as complementary treatment techniques. These special techniques are associated with the use of pressure. As per belief, these special manual manipulations can cure the bone cancer problem.
- Diet and nutrition: Your diet will play a major role in improving your condition. You must have a strict calorie intake and only stick to a low-fat diet. Add more and more fruits and vegetables.
What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Bone Cancer?
Such patients should avoid doing the following things:
- Do not perform heavy physical activities: As the bones become weak in bone cancer, so it is a bad idea to put pressure on bones. Even a little pressure on bones can lead to fractured; hence be careful.
- Don’t rely on pills when it comes to nutrition: Supplements are not supposed to be taken instead of proper food.
- Say no to dehydration: Drink plenty of fluids. You will understand that you need more water when your urine is dark in color.
What Are The Best Foods For Bone Cancer?
It is very important to maintain a well-balanced and nutrient-rich diet in order to fight bone cancer and its associated treatments. The bone cancer patients can take the following foods as per the doctor’s recommendations.
- Antioxidant-rich foods: Antioxidants are essential substances that are very helpful in order to protect the body from the harmful damage caused by free radicals that can result in disease and infection. Antioxidants play a crucial role in the maintenance and building a healthy immune system that helps to fight many diseases. Bone cancers’risks can also be alleviated by sufficient antioxidant intake. Berries, tomatoes, spinach, kale, and broccoli are the rich sources of antioxidants.
- Omega-3-rich foods: Omega-3 fatty acids are very helpful to reduce bone cancer symptoms. Omega-3 rich foods are sardines, salmons, flax seeds, walnuts, flaxseed oil etc.
- Protein-rich foods: It is very important to take the protein-rich foods. These foods help to reduce the chemotherapy treatment effects such as weight and muscle loss. These foods also help to maintain a strong and healthy body as well as a fight against cancer. Some of the protein-rich foods are tofu, beans, lean meats, organic eggs, cold water fish, vegetable protein shakes, whey, etc.
What Are The Worst Foods For Bone Cancer?
The bone cancer patients should avoid the following foods as per the Doctor’s recommendation:
- Foods associated with empty calories: Bone cancer treatment can result in nausea and pain that can affect the overall appetite. Empty calories are such calories that contain no nutrients. Therefore, the bone cancer patients should not take the foods associated with empty calories such as cakes, pastries, ice cream, cookies, bacon, sodas etc.
- Reduce fatty acids: Fatty acids can be found in fruit cakes, cheese, donuts, baked chips and other processed foods. The chances of nausea increase due to the patient’s loss of appetite due to bone cancer. Such patients should replace these kinds of foods with vegetables, fruits, and salad dressings. These foods are low on fatty acids and high in calorie. So, elimination of fried and spicy foods is very important. Boiled foods should be preferred over these foods.
- Avoid salt-rich foods: Lower salt level foods help to maintain the bone density in bone cancer patients.
- Avoid stimulants: Bone cancer patients should avoid stimulants such as foods and beverages associated with caffeine (coffee, hot chocolate, ice cream and yogurt, protein bars, non-cola sodas, candy bars, fancy water etc.) as they are said to weaken the bones. They even cause gas, bloating, and constipation, that add to the sufferings of the patient. These foods should be replaced with green tea or fruit juice that is rich in antioxidants and other nutritional benefits.
What Are The Medicines For Bone Cancer?
What Are The Tips To Manage Bone Cancer?