Hypoprothrombinemia

What Is Hypoprothrombinemia?

The deficiency of prothrombin causes the blood disorder which is known as hypoprothrombinemia. Prothrombin is also known as Factor II and is a protein present in the blood plasma that is required for the clotting of the blood. When the prothrombin is deficient, it causes clotting problems, i.e. the body finds it very difficult to stop the bleeding in the case of an injury, etc., which can be very dangerous if the bleeding is not stopped.

The body goes through a series of complex processes or coagulation factors (I to XII) and each of these numbers or factors denote a particular protein that is required for the clotting process. Any interruption or deficiency in any of the processes results in a serious problem in clotting. This especially occurs if the prothrombin levels in the bloodstream are insufficient, causing hypoprothrombinemia. 

A very serious condition of hypoprothrombinemia occurs when there is internal haemorrhaging that occurs especially in the gastrointestinal system, intracranial bleeding, muscle hematomas, postoperative bleeding, umbilical bleeding, pulmonary bleeding and menorrhagia. There are 2 forms of hypoprothrombinemia, inherited and acquired.

Acquired hypoprothrombinemia

Acquired hypoprothrombinemia, also known as acquired factor II or acquired prothrombin deficiency is developed due to some isolated factor deficiency or some other condition. Usually, this is due to the deficiency of vitamin K, which is required by the liver cells to produce prothrombin. Deficiency in vitamin K can lead to prolonged bleeding and clotting failures. Acquired hypoprothrombinemia is comparatively a rare condition and is an autoimmune condition.

Inherited hypoprothrombinemia

Inherited hypoprothrombinemia is caused due to some genetic defect or a hereditary condition that is passed on from the parent to the child. 

What Is Hypoprothrombinemia?

The deficiency of prothrombin causes the blood disorder which is known as hypoprothrombinemia. Prothrombin is also known as Factor II and is a protein present in the blood plasma that is required for the clotting of the blood. When the prothrombin is deficient, it causes clotting problems, i.e. the body finds it very difficult to stop the bleeding in the case of an injury, etc., which can be very dangerous if the bleeding is not stopped.

The body goes through a series of complex processes or coagulation factors (I to XII) and each of these numbers or factors denote a particular protein that is required for the clotting process. Any interruption or deficiency in any of the processes results in a serious problem in clotting. This especially occurs if the prothrombin levels in the bloodstream are insufficient, causing hypoprothrombinemia. 

A very serious condition of hypoprothrombinemia occurs when there is internal haemorrhaging that occurs especially in the gastrointestinal system, intracranial bleeding, muscle hematomas, postoperative bleeding, umbilical bleeding, pulmonary bleeding and menorrhagia. There are 2 forms of hypoprothrombinemia, inherited and acquired.

Acquired hypoprothrombinemia

Acquired hypoprothrombinemia, also known as acquired factor II or acquired prothrombin deficiency is developed due to some isolated factor deficiency or some other condition. Usually, this is due to the deficiency of vitamin K, which is required by the liver cells to produce prothrombin. Deficiency in vitamin K can lead to prolonged bleeding and clotting failures. Acquired hypoprothrombinemia is comparatively a rare condition and is an autoimmune condition.

Inherited hypoprothrombinemia

Inherited hypoprothrombinemia is caused due to some genetic defect or a hereditary condition that is passed on from the parent to the child. 

What Are The Symptoms Of Hypoprothrombinemia?

The symptoms of hypoprothrombinemia include:

  • Bruising that occurs very easily.
  • Prolonged bleeding after surgery, injury or tooth extraction.
  • Epistaxis (nosebleed).
  • Bleeding of the oral mucosa.
  • Melena (dark tarry stools).
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine).
  • Hemarthrosis (bleeding into the joint spaces).
  • Hematochezia (vomiting blood).
  • Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding).
  • Intracranial haemorrhage (bleeding in the skull).

What Are The Causes Of Hypoprothrombinemia?

The causes of hypoprothrombinemia include:

  • Vitamin K deficiency.
  • DIC or Disseminated intravascular coagulation.
  • Severe liver disease.
  • Warfarin overdose.
  • Antibiotic-induced hypoprothrombinemia (due to beta-lactam antibiotics).
  • Underlying medical problems.
  • Inherited at birth (genetic defect).
  • Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinaemia syndrome.
  • An adverse effect of certain medications.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • If your child or you suffer from hypoprothrombinemia, ensure that all the various causes and reasons that can cause bleeding are determined and ensure that you prevent those risks.
  • If there is any reason that causes bleeding, ensure that the person gets medical treatment immediately if he or she is suffering from hypoprothrombinemia.   

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Avoid activities and situations that can lead to severe injury or trauma and bleeding (especially head trauma) if you suffer from hypoprothrombinemia.  
  • Avoid athletic activities that can cause a collision at high speed, etc., as this increases the risk of bleeding. 

What Are The Best Foods For Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Eat foods that are rich in vitamin K as they can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia. Eat foods such as green leafy vegetables, cabbage, lettuce, kale, chard, broccoli, carrots, okra, celery, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, beans, sprouts and fruits like prunes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries and blackberries as they are rich in vitamin K.
  • Milk and other dairy products like cheese, yoghurt, etc. are a rich source of calcium that can help to increase the absorption of vitamin K and also can help in blood clotting.
  • Foods like sardines, salmon, eggs, meats, cereals and fruits are also a good source of calcium and are helpful for the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • Niacin or vitamin B3 is helpful for blood clotting. Eating foods rich in vitamin B3 like fish, beans, meat and poultry can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • Manganese can help in blood clotting and also in healing wounds. Foods like tea, coconut, whole wheat bread, tofu, seeds, nuts, chocolate, teff, green leafy vegetables, etc. are great sources of manganese.
  • A deficiency of copper in your diet can cause blood clotting problems. Eat foods that contain copper such as mushrooms, kale, avocado, goat cheese, nuts, beans, seeds, seafood, etc. as they can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.

What Are The Worst Foods For Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Too much of clotting of blood in the body can also lead to hazardous conditions like stroke. Avoid foods that are high in sodium such as fast foods like burgers, fries, hot dogs, processed meats, canned soups and foods and other ready-made foods, as these foods increase your risk of stroke.
  • Cholesterol and saturated fats can also make your blood clot. So, it is a good idea to avoid fatty meats, egg yolks, full-fat cheese, butter and fatty and fried foods.
  • Avoid foods like ginger, garlic, grapeseed, etc. as they prevent clot formation and can worsen the condition of hypoprothrombinemia. 

What Are The Medicines For Hypoprothrombinemia?

What Are The Tips To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Keep a lookout for any abnormal bleeding such as menstrual bleeding or nosebleeds that does not get resolved in the normal time period. Get medical attention immediately, as this could be a red flag or warning of an underlying problem of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • If you are taking vitamin K supplements for hypoprothrombinemia, check with your doctor, as taking too much of the vitamin can have harmful effects.  

What Are The Symptoms Of Hypoprothrombinemia?

The symptoms of hypoprothrombinemia include:

  • Bruising that occurs very easily.
  • Prolonged bleeding after surgery, injury or tooth extraction.
  • Epistaxis (nosebleed).
  • Bleeding of the oral mucosa.
  • Melena (dark tarry stools).
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine).
  • Hemarthrosis (bleeding into the joint spaces).
  • Hematochezia (vomiting blood).
  • Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding).
  • Intracranial haemorrhage (bleeding in the skull).

What Are The Causes Of Hypoprothrombinemia?

The causes of hypoprothrombinemia include:

  • Vitamin K deficiency.
  • DIC or Disseminated intravascular coagulation.
  • Severe liver disease.
  • Warfarin overdose.
  • Antibiotic-induced hypoprothrombinemia (due to beta-lactam antibiotics).
  • Underlying medical problems.
  • Inherited at birth (genetic defect).
  • Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinaemia syndrome.
  • An adverse effect of certain medications.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • If your child or you suffer from hypoprothrombinemia, ensure that all the various causes and reasons that can cause bleeding are determined and ensure that you prevent those risks.
  • If there is any reason that causes bleeding, ensure that the person gets medical treatment immediately if he or she is suffering from hypoprothrombinemia.   

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Avoid activities and situations that can lead to severe injury or trauma and bleeding (especially head trauma) if you suffer from hypoprothrombinemia.  
  • Avoid athletic activities that can cause a collision at high speed, etc., as this increases the risk of bleeding. 

What Are The Best Foods For Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Eat foods that are rich in vitamin K as they can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia. Eat foods such as green leafy vegetables, cabbage, lettuce, kale, chard, broccoli, carrots, okra, celery, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, beans, sprouts and fruits like prunes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries and blackberries as they are rich in vitamin K.
  • Milk and other dairy products like cheese, yoghurt, etc. are a rich source of calcium that can help to increase the absorption of vitamin K and also can help in blood clotting.
  • Foods like sardines, salmon, eggs, meats, cereals and fruits are also a good source of calcium and are helpful for the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • Niacin or vitamin B3 is helpful for blood clotting. Eating foods rich in vitamin B3 like fish, beans, meat and poultry can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • Manganese can help in blood clotting and also in healing wounds. Foods like tea, coconut, whole wheat bread, tofu, seeds, nuts, chocolate, teff, green leafy vegetables, etc. are great sources of manganese.
  • A deficiency of copper in your diet can cause blood clotting problems. Eat foods that contain copper such as mushrooms, kale, avocado, goat cheese, nuts, beans, seeds, seafood, etc. as they can help the condition of hypoprothrombinemia.

What Are The Worst Foods For Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Too much of clotting of blood in the body can also lead to hazardous conditions like stroke. Avoid foods that are high in sodium such as fast foods like burgers, fries, hot dogs, processed meats, canned soups and foods and other ready-made foods, as these foods increase your risk of stroke.
  • Cholesterol and saturated fats can also make your blood clot. So, it is a good idea to avoid fatty meats, egg yolks, full-fat cheese, butter and fatty and fried foods.
  • Avoid foods like ginger, garlic, grapeseed, etc. as they prevent clot formation and can worsen the condition of hypoprothrombinemia. 

What Are The Medicines For Hypoprothrombinemia?

What Are The Tips To Manage Hypoprothrombinemia?

  • Keep a lookout for any abnormal bleeding such as menstrual bleeding or nosebleeds that does not get resolved in the normal time period. Get medical attention immediately, as this could be a red flag or warning of an underlying problem of hypoprothrombinemia.
  • If you are taking vitamin K supplements for hypoprothrombinemia, check with your doctor, as taking too much of the vitamin can have harmful effects.  

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