Typhoid

What Is Typhoid ?

A bacterium known as Salmonella typhimurium causes the infection called typhoid. These bacteria reside in the bloodstreams and intestines of the humans. It is spread among the individuals by the direct contact with an infected person’s feces.

This disease is not transmitted by animals; hence it is always transferred by humans.

In the case of untreated typhoid, 1 in 4 infected person dies. If the proper treatment is provided, then the death rate decreases to 4 in 100 or even less.

The bacterium S.typhi makes its entry in the human body via mouth and stays in intestines for about 1 to 3 weeks. After this, the bacterium enters the bloodstream by making its path through the walls of the intestines. It then spreads to other organs and tissues. The human body’s immune system cannot fight back much against this bacterium as the bacterium lives in the host’s cells, which safeguards the bacterium from one’s immune system 

The diagnosis of typhoid is done by detecting the S. Typhi presence in the body by testing stool, bone marrow, urine, or blood sample.   

What Is Typhoid ?

A bacterium known as Salmonella typhimurium causes the infection called typhoid. These bacteria reside in the bloodstreams and intestines of the humans. It is spread among the individuals by the direct contact with an infected person’s feces.

This disease is not transmitted by animals; hence it is always transferred by humans.

In the case of untreated typhoid, 1 in 4 infected person dies. If the proper treatment is provided, then the death rate decreases to 4 in 100 or even less.

The bacterium S.typhi makes its entry in the human body via mouth and stays in intestines for about 1 to 3 weeks. After this, the bacterium enters the bloodstream by making its path through the walls of the intestines. It then spreads to other organs and tissues. The human body’s immune system cannot fight back much against this bacterium as the bacterium lives in the host’s cells, which safeguards the bacterium from one’s immune system 

The diagnosis of typhoid is done by detecting the S. Typhi presence in the body by testing stool, bone marrow, urine, or blood sample.   

What Are The Symptoms Of Typhoid ?

The symptoms and signs of the disease are developed eventually, often appears one to three weeks after the entry of the S.typhi bacterium in the human body.

Symptoms of early illness:

  • Fever: the fever that may start from low and keeps on increasing daily. Fever can possibly reach to 104.9 F (40.5 C).
  • A headache: one suffering from typhoid often experiences a headache.
  • Feeling of fatigue and weakness.
  • Aching muscles.
  • A dry cough.
  • Sweating.
  • The appetite of the patient is lost due to which he/she loses weight.
  • Constipation or diarrhea.
  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Abdomen extremely gets swollen.
  • Rashes.
  • Signs that appear in the case of untreated illness may be.
  • If a person to do get treated in early stages of typhoid, then he/she may become delirious.
  • The patient may lie exhausted with his/her eyes half-closed and becomes motionless. 
  • Later stage of typhoid may be become life threating.

In some cases, symptoms and sign may get back two weeks after the fever has gone.  

What Are The Causes Of Typhoid ?

The cause of typhoid fever is the entry of the Salmonella typhi bacteria in one’s body.

These Salmonella typhi bacteria are present in the feces of an infected person. So, if they do not wash their hands properly after coming from the toilet, then they may touch food which becomes contaminated. One who eats that contaminated food can also become infected. 

It is less likely that the S.typhi bacteria passes out from the urine of the infected person. But, it is necessary to wash hands properly after urinating and before handing the food items to prevent the entry of the bacteria in others.

In the areas of the world that lack in sanitation, waste of infected humans may contaminate the supply of water. If people drink that contaminated water or may wash the food items in that water, then there are high chances of developing typhoid fever.  

Other ways in which typhoid fever can be caused are:

  • When one uses the toilets, which are contaminated with S.typhi bacteria and touches one’s mouth before washing hands.
  • Consuming sea food from the contaminated source of water. These water bodies may get contaminated by urine or feces containing S.typhi bacteria. 
  • Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, which are fertilized with S.typhi bacteria containing human waste.
  • Consuming milk products that are contaminated with S.typhi bacteria.
  • Also, anal or oral sex may transfer Salmonella typhi bacteria from one person to another.

1 in 20 people may survive typhoid without getting the treatment. Such people become the carriers of S.typhi bacteria. It signifies that this bacterium may continue to reside in the body of the carrier and infection can be spread by their urine and feces. Carriers are infected with S.typhi bacteria but do not face any symptoms of typhoid.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Typhoid ?

One must follow certain tips to stay away from typhoid and also to stop it from spreading further. Few tips are discussed below:

Sanitary hygiene tips: Most important tip to avoid typhoid is to maintain sanitary hygiene. Few Dos to maintain sanitary hygiene are as follows:

  • Try to avoid public toilets, and carry a toilet sanitizing spray, use them in the case of an emergency. 
  • Wash hands properly with soap after using a toilet.
  • Dispose of baby diapers in proper pouches.
  • Keep the personal washrooms clean by using disinfectants.

Food hygiene tips: Food carries the bacteria to the mouth. Hence, it is important to maintain food hygiene. Some necessary tips are:

  • It is important to wash hands properly and frequently, before having or cooking a meal.
  • When outside always prefer drinking bottled water.
  • Consume peeled vegetables and fruits: Consume the raw vegetables and fruits that are not peeled, but you can be dangerous.  Always eat Freshly peeled fruits and do not store the peeled fruits for later consumption.
  • Make sure to rinse vegetables and fruits in clean water. Consume treated or boiled water, doing so may kill the bacteria in the water. Sometimes water may appear clean, but still, it can consist of the bacteria.
  • It is important to store the drinking water in a hygienic way: One must wash the container with warm water and dish soap before storing the water. There should be a proper cover of the container. Stored water should be consumed within 4 hours.
  • Wash the utensils in clean water to avoid bacteria on the utensils. Use clean, warm water and dish soap for cleaning them. 

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Typhoid ?

  • Do not consume street food as there is no certainty of the hygiene. Water used in them is generally not clean may be contaminated with bacteria. Also, the hands of the cooks may not be sanitized.
  • Do not get the vaccination done for pregnant women and children under the six years of age.
  • Do not do anal sex or oral sex if one’s partner is infected from typhoid, as it can lead to the transfer of Salmonella typhi bacteria from the infected partner to the other.

What Are The Best Foods For Typhoid ?

A healthy diet is really important for typhoid patients as a lot of nutrients are lost in typhoid during diarrhea.

High-Calorie Foods: As the patient suffering from typhoid tends to lose weight, it is very important to give them a high-calorie diet. It gives strength to the body for fighting with the bacteria. Some high-calorie foods that one can consume while suffering from typhoid are white bread, pasta, fruit juice, white rice, bananas, and potatoes.

  •  
  • Apple cider vinegar: High temperature of the body can be reduced by consuming apple cider vinegar. It helps to replenish the lost minerals due to diarrhea, and it also gives energy to the body. It increases the immunity of the body to fight against the typhoid bacteria.
  • Banana: Banana effectively treats diarrhea. It has a compound named pectin that absorbs the intestine’s liquid. Banana is rich in potassium that covers the lost electrolytes due to diarrhea and fever.   
  • Buttermilk: Buttermilk prevents dehydration and can be digested easily. One can drink a glass of buttermilk to prevent dehydration caused by diarrhea.
  • Cloves: Cloves have essential oils that are packed with antibacterial properties. Hence, it fights against the S.typhi bacteria, due to which typhoid is caused. In addition, cloves help to subside vomiting and diarrhea. One can add 5-6 clove buds in 7-8 cups of water and wait for it to reduce to half. Let it cool and consume it several times in a day, at least for a week.
  • Garlic: Garlic has a lot of health benefits. Few of such benefits are the strong immune system and antimicrobial properties. Strong immune system and antimicrobial properties help to fight against the Salmonella typhi bacteria.
  • Cranberries: Cranberries have ant-parasitic properties that help to prevent diarrhea and also treats typhoid fever. In addition, the immune system is boosted by the cranberries.
  • Lemon: Lemon has natural disinfectant properties, which helps to alkalize one’s gastrointestinal tract. Also, it boosts one’s immune system. One can add a few drops of lemon to a glass of water and honey can also be added to it. One can drink it for one week and can continue to drink after the recovery as well.
  • Pomegranates: Pomegranate is one of the healthiest fruits and has a number of benefits. One can consume fresh pomegranate juice to avoid dehydration and to provide energy to the body. One can consume one glass juice daily.
  • Carrot: Carrot has a high amount of antioxidants. Also, the immune system is enhanced by eating a carrot or drinking a glass of carrot juice. Hence, it fights against typhoid fever and diarrhea.

What Are The Worst Foods For Typhoid ?

It is very important to typhoid patients to watch what they eat so that, symptoms and condition do not worsen. Foods that must consider avoiding are:

  • Foods high in fiber: Consumption of whole grain foods should be avoided as it may provide stress to one’s digestive system. Few high fiber foods one must consider avoiding are whole wheat bread, raw vegetables in a salad form and oatmeal.
  • One must not consume certain vegetables that may cause gas and bloating in the stomach. Such vegetables include capsicum, turnip, and cabbage.
  • Oily and spicy foods: A person suffering from typhoid must not consume spicy and oily food as it can cause the inflammation in the digestive tract. Few foods that must be completely boycotted are cayenne, chili powder, and pepper. 

What Are The Medicines For Typhoid ?

What Are The Tips To Manage Typhoid ?

  • Keep one self well hydrated while suffering from typhoid fever.
  • Maintain a distance from a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Get the typhoid vaccine done before traveling: When one is traveling to any developing country of the world, then there are high possibilities of getting infected from S.typhi bacteria. Therefore, visit a doctor to get its vaccine done to prevent typhoid. Visit a doctor even if you had been vaccinated before as one might need a booster dose of the vaccine.

What Are The Symptoms Of Typhoid ?

The symptoms and signs of the disease are developed eventually, often appears one to three weeks after the entry of the S.typhi bacterium in the human body.

Symptoms of early illness:

  • Fever: the fever that may start from low and keeps on increasing daily. Fever can possibly reach to 104.9 F (40.5 C).
  • A headache: one suffering from typhoid often experiences a headache.
  • Feeling of fatigue and weakness.
  • Aching muscles.
  • A dry cough.
  • Sweating.
  • The appetite of the patient is lost due to which he/she loses weight.
  • Constipation or diarrhea.
  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Abdomen extremely gets swollen.
  • Rashes.
  • Signs that appear in the case of untreated illness may be.
  • If a person to do get treated in early stages of typhoid, then he/she may become delirious.
  • The patient may lie exhausted with his/her eyes half-closed and becomes motionless. 
  • Later stage of typhoid may be become life threating.

In some cases, symptoms and sign may get back two weeks after the fever has gone.  

What Are The Causes Of Typhoid ?

The cause of typhoid fever is the entry of the Salmonella typhi bacteria in one’s body.

These Salmonella typhi bacteria are present in the feces of an infected person. So, if they do not wash their hands properly after coming from the toilet, then they may touch food which becomes contaminated. One who eats that contaminated food can also become infected. 

It is less likely that the S.typhi bacteria passes out from the urine of the infected person. But, it is necessary to wash hands properly after urinating and before handing the food items to prevent the entry of the bacteria in others.

In the areas of the world that lack in sanitation, waste of infected humans may contaminate the supply of water. If people drink that contaminated water or may wash the food items in that water, then there are high chances of developing typhoid fever.  

Other ways in which typhoid fever can be caused are:

  • When one uses the toilets, which are contaminated with S.typhi bacteria and touches one’s mouth before washing hands.
  • Consuming sea food from the contaminated source of water. These water bodies may get contaminated by urine or feces containing S.typhi bacteria. 
  • Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, which are fertilized with S.typhi bacteria containing human waste.
  • Consuming milk products that are contaminated with S.typhi bacteria.
  • Also, anal or oral sex may transfer Salmonella typhi bacteria from one person to another.

1 in 20 people may survive typhoid without getting the treatment. Such people become the carriers of S.typhi bacteria. It signifies that this bacterium may continue to reside in the body of the carrier and infection can be spread by their urine and feces. Carriers are infected with S.typhi bacteria but do not face any symptoms of typhoid.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Typhoid ?

One must follow certain tips to stay away from typhoid and also to stop it from spreading further. Few tips are discussed below:

Sanitary hygiene tips: Most important tip to avoid typhoid is to maintain sanitary hygiene. Few Dos to maintain sanitary hygiene are as follows:

  • Try to avoid public toilets, and carry a toilet sanitizing spray, use them in the case of an emergency. 
  • Wash hands properly with soap after using a toilet.
  • Dispose of baby diapers in proper pouches.
  • Keep the personal washrooms clean by using disinfectants.

Food hygiene tips: Food carries the bacteria to the mouth. Hence, it is important to maintain food hygiene. Some necessary tips are:

  • It is important to wash hands properly and frequently, before having or cooking a meal.
  • When outside always prefer drinking bottled water.
  • Consume peeled vegetables and fruits: Consume the raw vegetables and fruits that are not peeled, but you can be dangerous.  Always eat Freshly peeled fruits and do not store the peeled fruits for later consumption.
  • Make sure to rinse vegetables and fruits in clean water. Consume treated or boiled water, doing so may kill the bacteria in the water. Sometimes water may appear clean, but still, it can consist of the bacteria.
  • It is important to store the drinking water in a hygienic way: One must wash the container with warm water and dish soap before storing the water. There should be a proper cover of the container. Stored water should be consumed within 4 hours.
  • Wash the utensils in clean water to avoid bacteria on the utensils. Use clean, warm water and dish soap for cleaning them. 

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Typhoid ?

  • Do not consume street food as there is no certainty of the hygiene. Water used in them is generally not clean may be contaminated with bacteria. Also, the hands of the cooks may not be sanitized.
  • Do not get the vaccination done for pregnant women and children under the six years of age.
  • Do not do anal sex or oral sex if one’s partner is infected from typhoid, as it can lead to the transfer of Salmonella typhi bacteria from the infected partner to the other.

What Are The Best Foods For Typhoid ?

A healthy diet is really important for typhoid patients as a lot of nutrients are lost in typhoid during diarrhea.

High-Calorie Foods: As the patient suffering from typhoid tends to lose weight, it is very important to give them a high-calorie diet. It gives strength to the body for fighting with the bacteria. Some high-calorie foods that one can consume while suffering from typhoid are white bread, pasta, fruit juice, white rice, bananas, and potatoes.

  •  
  • Apple cider vinegar: High temperature of the body can be reduced by consuming apple cider vinegar. It helps to replenish the lost minerals due to diarrhea, and it also gives energy to the body. It increases the immunity of the body to fight against the typhoid bacteria.
  • Banana: Banana effectively treats diarrhea. It has a compound named pectin that absorbs the intestine’s liquid. Banana is rich in potassium that covers the lost electrolytes due to diarrhea and fever.   
  • Buttermilk: Buttermilk prevents dehydration and can be digested easily. One can drink a glass of buttermilk to prevent dehydration caused by diarrhea.
  • Cloves: Cloves have essential oils that are packed with antibacterial properties. Hence, it fights against the S.typhi bacteria, due to which typhoid is caused. In addition, cloves help to subside vomiting and diarrhea. One can add 5-6 clove buds in 7-8 cups of water and wait for it to reduce to half. Let it cool and consume it several times in a day, at least for a week.
  • Garlic: Garlic has a lot of health benefits. Few of such benefits are the strong immune system and antimicrobial properties. Strong immune system and antimicrobial properties help to fight against the Salmonella typhi bacteria.
  • Cranberries: Cranberries have ant-parasitic properties that help to prevent diarrhea and also treats typhoid fever. In addition, the immune system is boosted by the cranberries.
  • Lemon: Lemon has natural disinfectant properties, which helps to alkalize one’s gastrointestinal tract. Also, it boosts one’s immune system. One can add a few drops of lemon to a glass of water and honey can also be added to it. One can drink it for one week and can continue to drink after the recovery as well.
  • Pomegranates: Pomegranate is one of the healthiest fruits and has a number of benefits. One can consume fresh pomegranate juice to avoid dehydration and to provide energy to the body. One can consume one glass juice daily.
  • Carrot: Carrot has a high amount of antioxidants. Also, the immune system is enhanced by eating a carrot or drinking a glass of carrot juice. Hence, it fights against typhoid fever and diarrhea.

What Are The Worst Foods For Typhoid ?

It is very important to typhoid patients to watch what they eat so that, symptoms and condition do not worsen. Foods that must consider avoiding are:

  • Foods high in fiber: Consumption of whole grain foods should be avoided as it may provide stress to one’s digestive system. Few high fiber foods one must consider avoiding are whole wheat bread, raw vegetables in a salad form and oatmeal.
  • One must not consume certain vegetables that may cause gas and bloating in the stomach. Such vegetables include capsicum, turnip, and cabbage.
  • Oily and spicy foods: A person suffering from typhoid must not consume spicy and oily food as it can cause the inflammation in the digestive tract. Few foods that must be completely boycotted are cayenne, chili powder, and pepper. 

What Are The Medicines For Typhoid ?

What Are The Tips To Manage Typhoid ?

  • Keep one self well hydrated while suffering from typhoid fever.
  • Maintain a distance from a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Get the typhoid vaccine done before traveling: When one is traveling to any developing country of the world, then there are high possibilities of getting infected from S.typhi bacteria. Therefore, visit a doctor to get its vaccine done to prevent typhoid. Visit a doctor even if you had been vaccinated before as one might need a booster dose of the vaccine.