Yellow fever

What Is Yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a potentially deadly disease characterized by high fever and jaundice. In the condition, jaundice causes yellowing of the eyes, skin, and nails, which is why it is popularly called as yellow fever. This acute hemorrhagic fever rapidly sets up in the body and recovery can be achieved within 3-4 days with proper treatment. However, if the symptoms persist over 3-4 days, the disease can be fatal.

What Is Yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a potentially deadly disease characterized by high fever and jaundice. In the condition, jaundice causes yellowing of the eyes, skin, and nails, which is why it is popularly called as yellow fever. This acute hemorrhagic fever rapidly sets up in the body and recovery can be achieved within 3-4 days with proper treatment. However, if the symptoms persist over 3-4 days, the disease can be fatal.

What Are The Symptoms Of Yellow fever?

Some of the most common initial symptoms of Yellow fever that are shown within 3-6 days of viral exposure are:

Initial Symptoms:

  • Muscle aches.
  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Joint ache.
  • Headache.

After these initial symptoms that resemble those of influenza, acute phase of the disease occurs with other symptoms.

Acute Phase:

  • Flushing of the skin.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

After this stage, symptoms might go away for a day and reappear in the toxic phase, which includes:

  • Abdominal Pain.
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Bradycardia.
  • Bleeding from mouth, eyes or nose.
  • Seizures.
  • Decreased urination.
  • Vomiting.
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Delirium.

The toxic phase of yellow fever is fatal and only about 15% of the yellow fever patients enter this phase.

What Are The Causes Of Yellow fever?

Yellow fever is caused by Flavivirus genus of viruses that also includes dengue virus, zika virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. It is transmitted to humans by a bite from infected Aedeseagypti female mosquitoes that usually breed in humid and semi-humid conditions. Here, mosquitoes get infected with the flavivirus when they bite an affected monkey or human. RNA virus enters the body through the bite and rapidly replicates and forms its own genetic material using host DNA. Upon proliferation, it is released into the bloodstream and the virus particles spread all over the body to cause the disease.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Yellow fever?

As no cure has been developed for yellow fever, managing the symptoms and helping the body’s immune system to fight off the viral infection is essential. Some of the important tips in the management and prevention of yellow fever include:

  • Take enough fluids into the body, especially through veins is recommended. This is important for normal functioning of the kidney and detoxification in the liver. It also increases sweating, which is just like breaking the fever.
  • One should prefer staying in air-conditioned areas, to avoid the risk of mosquitoes.
  • Use mosquito repellents on clothes, shoes and also your body.
  • Use mosquito nets to avoid mosquito bites.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants to cover your body to the maximum extent, so that skin is not exposed to mosquitos.
  • Once attacked by yellow fever, you will be immune to it life-long. However, you will be the carrier of the disease. Yellow fever vaccines are the best methods to avoid infection, especially before travelling to the countries that have a risk of yellow fever.    

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Yellow fever?

These are some of the things to avoid in yellow fever:

  • Avoid stress and anxiety to maintain normal functioning of the heart, to avoid the symptoms to worsen.
  • Don’t let stagnant water in your surroundings, which serve as breeding places for the mosquitoes.
  • Avoid going out as a mosquito bite can transmit the disease to others.
  • Avoid opening doors and windows of your house during dawn and dusk as mosquitoes are highly active at this time.

What Are The Best Foods For Yellow fever?

The diet recommended for yellow fever includes:

  • Cayenne Pepper: The component in cayenne pepper, capsicum helps in significantly reducing the fever. As fever drains the energy of the body, eliminating it helps the body to fight the infection effectively.
  • Fenugreek seeds:  Chewing fenugreek seeds has shown to reduce fever and improve gastrointestinal symptoms associated with yellow fever.
  • Garlic: It helps in boosting the immune system of the body. Garlic also has been found useful in countering the loss of appetite by stimulating the hormones that induce hunger in the body. It also helps in reducing high blood pressure that occurs in the disease. They actively prevent the shift from the acute phase to toxic phase of yellow fever.
  • Fruits and vegetables: Low carbohydrate fruits and juices rich in vitamin C like orange, tangerine, and grapefruits, and boiled vegetables like spinach, broccoli, and asparagus have to be taken to supply adequate nutrients to the body to boost the immune system.
  • Potassium rich foods: Bananas, spinach, potatoes, and avocado are rich in potassium and help in maintaining proper functioning of the heart. This also prevents your body from entering a toxic phase of yellow fever.
  • Iron rich foods: Intake of iron rich foods like beans, leafy greens, and peas help in increasing the red blood cell count and thus enhance oxygen supply to essential organs.
  • Catnip:  Not only it reduces the symptoms of yellow fever but also acts as a strong repellent against the mosquitoes.
  • Golden rod herbs: This promotes sweating and also boosts the immune system and breaks fever to significantly suppress the symptoms of the disease.
  • Dogwood: A tea of bark of dogwood helps in reducing the symptoms of the disease, especially by reducing the fever.
  • Willow: When taken in the form of decoction or tea, it increases the body temperature and stimulates sweating, thus breaking the fever.
  • Cinchona: Use of cinchona bark or its tea is best-known to reduce the symptoms of fever and boost the immune system.

What Are The Worst Foods For Yellow fever?

Some of the foods, which can be proved bad in the yellow fever are as follows:

  • Oily and fried foods: These contain high levels of saturated and trans-fats that can worsen the symptoms of vomiting, bradycardia and suppress the immune system. Foods like French fries and potato chips must be avoided.
  • Fats like butter, cream, and oils: Intake of excess fats interfere in the detoxification process in the liver and also has no effect in improving the immune system.
  • Heavy foods like lamb, beef, poultry: These take a lot of time to digest and in the phase of the disease, they can induce vomiting and other bowel disorders.

What Are The Medicines For Yellow fever?

What Are The Tips To Manage Yellow fever?

One may use eucalyptus oil on the skin to prevent mosquito bite. 

What Are The Symptoms Of Yellow fever?

Some of the most common initial symptoms of Yellow fever that are shown within 3-6 days of viral exposure are:

Initial Symptoms:

  • Muscle aches.
  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Joint ache.
  • Headache.

After these initial symptoms that resemble those of influenza, acute phase of the disease occurs with other symptoms.

Acute Phase:

  • Flushing of the skin.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

After this stage, symptoms might go away for a day and reappear in the toxic phase, which includes:

  • Abdominal Pain.
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Bradycardia.
  • Bleeding from mouth, eyes or nose.
  • Seizures.
  • Decreased urination.
  • Vomiting.
  • Arrhythmia.
  • Delirium.

The toxic phase of yellow fever is fatal and only about 15% of the yellow fever patients enter this phase.

What Are The Causes Of Yellow fever?

Yellow fever is caused by Flavivirus genus of viruses that also includes dengue virus, zika virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus. It is transmitted to humans by a bite from infected Aedeseagypti female mosquitoes that usually breed in humid and semi-humid conditions. Here, mosquitoes get infected with the flavivirus when they bite an affected monkey or human. RNA virus enters the body through the bite and rapidly replicates and forms its own genetic material using host DNA. Upon proliferation, it is released into the bloodstream and the virus particles spread all over the body to cause the disease.

What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Yellow fever?

As no cure has been developed for yellow fever, managing the symptoms and helping the body’s immune system to fight off the viral infection is essential. Some of the important tips in the management and prevention of yellow fever include:

  • Take enough fluids into the body, especially through veins is recommended. This is important for normal functioning of the kidney and detoxification in the liver. It also increases sweating, which is just like breaking the fever.
  • One should prefer staying in air-conditioned areas, to avoid the risk of mosquitoes.
  • Use mosquito repellents on clothes, shoes and also your body.
  • Use mosquito nets to avoid mosquito bites.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants to cover your body to the maximum extent, so that skin is not exposed to mosquitos.
  • Once attacked by yellow fever, you will be immune to it life-long. However, you will be the carrier of the disease. Yellow fever vaccines are the best methods to avoid infection, especially before travelling to the countries that have a risk of yellow fever.    

What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Yellow fever?

These are some of the things to avoid in yellow fever:

  • Avoid stress and anxiety to maintain normal functioning of the heart, to avoid the symptoms to worsen.
  • Don’t let stagnant water in your surroundings, which serve as breeding places for the mosquitoes.
  • Avoid going out as a mosquito bite can transmit the disease to others.
  • Avoid opening doors and windows of your house during dawn and dusk as mosquitoes are highly active at this time.

What Are The Best Foods For Yellow fever?

The diet recommended for yellow fever includes:

  • Cayenne Pepper: The component in cayenne pepper, capsicum helps in significantly reducing the fever. As fever drains the energy of the body, eliminating it helps the body to fight the infection effectively.
  • Fenugreek seeds:  Chewing fenugreek seeds has shown to reduce fever and improve gastrointestinal symptoms associated with yellow fever.
  • Garlic: It helps in boosting the immune system of the body. Garlic also has been found useful in countering the loss of appetite by stimulating the hormones that induce hunger in the body. It also helps in reducing high blood pressure that occurs in the disease. They actively prevent the shift from the acute phase to toxic phase of yellow fever.
  • Fruits and vegetables: Low carbohydrate fruits and juices rich in vitamin C like orange, tangerine, and grapefruits, and boiled vegetables like spinach, broccoli, and asparagus have to be taken to supply adequate nutrients to the body to boost the immune system.
  • Potassium rich foods: Bananas, spinach, potatoes, and avocado are rich in potassium and help in maintaining proper functioning of the heart. This also prevents your body from entering a toxic phase of yellow fever.
  • Iron rich foods: Intake of iron rich foods like beans, leafy greens, and peas help in increasing the red blood cell count and thus enhance oxygen supply to essential organs.
  • Catnip:  Not only it reduces the symptoms of yellow fever but also acts as a strong repellent against the mosquitoes.
  • Golden rod herbs: This promotes sweating and also boosts the immune system and breaks fever to significantly suppress the symptoms of the disease.
  • Dogwood: A tea of bark of dogwood helps in reducing the symptoms of the disease, especially by reducing the fever.
  • Willow: When taken in the form of decoction or tea, it increases the body temperature and stimulates sweating, thus breaking the fever.
  • Cinchona: Use of cinchona bark or its tea is best-known to reduce the symptoms of fever and boost the immune system.

What Are The Worst Foods For Yellow fever?

Some of the foods, which can be proved bad in the yellow fever are as follows:

  • Oily and fried foods: These contain high levels of saturated and trans-fats that can worsen the symptoms of vomiting, bradycardia and suppress the immune system. Foods like French fries and potato chips must be avoided.
  • Fats like butter, cream, and oils: Intake of excess fats interfere in the detoxification process in the liver and also has no effect in improving the immune system.
  • Heavy foods like lamb, beef, poultry: These take a lot of time to digest and in the phase of the disease, they can induce vomiting and other bowel disorders.

What Are The Medicines For Yellow fever?

What Are The Tips To Manage Yellow fever?

One may use eucalyptus oil on the skin to prevent mosquito bite.