• 24 DEC 18
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    ALL ABOUT HYPERTHYROIDISM

    ALL ABOUT HYPERTHYROIDISM

    The thyroid is a small gland that is present below Adam’s apple in the neck, it secretes the hormones Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) that gives rise to the level of oxygen in the body uses and stimulates the cells to produce new proteins. The thyroid determines the metabolic rate of the organs in the body as it controls the release of these hormones.

    Women have more thyroid problems than men.

    HYPERTHYROIDISM– It occurs when the thyroid is overactive and the hormone named thyroxine is produced a lot. There is a butterfly-shaped gland which is located in the neck that produces a lot of thyroid hormone. One of the main reasons why hyperthyroidism occurs is because of Graves’ disease- it is kind of an immune system disorder.

     Causes of Hyperthyroidism:

    1. One autoimmune disorder named Graves’ disease is a common cause of Hyperthyroidism, this disease occurs in women more than men, it runs in families that suggests that it has a genetic link. In this disease, the antibodies stimulate the thyroid to secrete too many hormones.
    2. Excess in iodine that is an important ingredient in T3 and T4.
    3. Testes or ovaries that develop tumours.
    4. Pituitary gland or thyroid that develops benign tumours.
    5. Inflammation of the thyroid or thyroiditis that causes T3 and T4 to leak out of the gland when huge amounts of tetraiodothyronine are consumed through medication or dietary supplements.

     

    Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism:

    1. Restlessness
    2. Difficulties in concentrating
    3. High levels of weakness
    4. Itching
    5. Problems in sleeping
    6. Nausea and vomiting
    7. Increase in the appetite
    8. Extreme nervousness
    9. Irregular heartbeat
    10. Little or excessive hair loss
    11. Men may experience symptoms like breast development
    12. The hair becomes brittle
    13. Some symptoms like shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, dizziness and irregular or fast heart rate need medical attention

     

    How is Hyperthyroidism diagnosed?

    One of the ways of diagnosing hyperthyroidism is through a medical history and physical exam. In the exam the doctor will detect a slight tremor in the fingers when they are extended, the doctor will examine the thyroid gland as the person swallows to see if it has increased in size, or is it tender or bumpy. The pulse will also be checked by the doctor to see if it is irregular or rapid.

    Thyroid –stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine that is measured by the blood tests that can diagnose hyperthyroidism. If hyperthyroidism is diagnosed through blood tests, the doctors may suggest some tests that will tell as to why the thyroid is over reactive –

    1. One of the tests is radioiodine uptake tests in these tests the person will be advised to take a little, oral dose of radioactive iodine to check how much of it will get collected in the thyroid gland. The person will be observed after 4, 6 or 24 hours.
    2. Thyroid scanIn this test one radioactive isotope will be injected into the vein on the inside of the elbow or at times it can be injected into a vein in the hand, the person then lies on a couch, sofa or table with the head stretched backwards and then on the computer screen a special camera will produce an image of the thyroid gland.
    3. Thyroid Ultrasound–In this test high- frequency sound waves produce images of the thyroid. Compared to other tests ultrasound is considered to be one of the best techniques that detect thyroid nodules and there is no exposure to radiation.
    4. MRIThe full form is Magnetic resonance imaging can help the doctor detect thyroid nodules and goitre but it cannot give any information about how the thyroid is functioning.

     

    Foods to be taken during Hyperthyroidism:

    When not treated, Hyperthyroidism can worsen the situation and can cause further health problems. It is very important to treat Hyperthyroidism before it causes further health issues. There are certain kinds of foods to be eaten when a person has Hyperthyroidism, some of the foods to be eaten are-

    The person is advised to have a low- iodine diet as it is helpful in reducing the thyroid hormones.

    1. The person is supposed to have non-iodized salt
    2. Drinking tea or coffee without soy- based creamers, dairy or milk
    3. Canned or fresh fruits
    4. Bread without dairy, salt and eggs
    5. Nut butter and nuts that are not salted
    6. Oats
    7. Popcorn with non-iodized salt
    8. Egg whites
    9. Potatoes
    10. Maple syrup
    11. Honey

     

    Cruciferous vegetables can also be good to treat hyperthyroidism. These vegetables include Mustard, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Bamboo shoots, Kale, Brussels Sprouts, Rutabaga, Bok Choy, Cassava, Collard greens.

    Deficiency or low levels of iron are associated with Hyperthyroidism; lots of iron in the diet can be helpful in reducing hyperthyroidism. Iron keeps the functioning of the body good. Blood cells require iron to carry oxygen to all the cells in the human body. Eat foods such as Green leafy vegetables, Nuts, Whole grains, Red meat, Lentils, Seeds, Dried beans. Poultry like turkey and chicken.

    Selenium keeps the thyroid hormone levels balanced and keeps the other tissues of the body healthy. Foods that include Selenium are Oat bran, couscous, mushrooms, sunflower seeds and chia seeds.

    Zinc is also very good and keeps the thyroid balanced. Foods that include zinc are Cashews, pumpkin seeds, cocoa powder, chickpeas, lamb and beef

    Foods that are rich in calcium should also be eaten. Foods that contain high amounts of calcium include- Collard greens, okra, spinach, white beans, kale and calcium-fortified cereals.

    Foods that include Vitamin D should also be eaten. Foods that contain Vitamin D are –Mushrooms, beef liver, Vitamin D- fortified cereals, fatty fish and vitamin D – fortified orange juice.

    Spices like green chillies, turmeric and black pepper should also be eaten as spices keep the thyroid hormones balanced and have anti-inflammatory properties.

    Fats like avocado, olive oil, flaxseed oil and coconut oil should be consumed.

    Foods to be avoided during Hyperthyroidism:

    Foods that contain excessive iodine should be avoided; seafood has a lot of iodine. Foods like seaweed, prawns, lobster, fish and kelp should not be eaten at all.

    Other foods like cheese, milk and dairy, egg yolks, iodized salt and some food colourings should be avoided as they have high iodine content.

    Iodine is present in some medications like cough syrups, herbal or vitamin supplements, amiodarone and medical contrast dyes. These medications should be avoided.

    Foods that contain Nitrates are fennel, processed meats, beets, parsley, pumpkin and carrots. They should also not be eaten as they contain high levels of nitrates.

    Thyroid can be harmed by gluten. Foods containing gluten include malt, rye, barley, wheat, triticale and brewer’s yeast should be avoided.

    Foods that contain Soy are tofu, soy milk, soy-based creamers and soy sauce should be avoided.

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