XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS has the following salts in its composition
1) Latanoprost 2) Timolol
Uses Of XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
Latanoprost is used in the form of eye drops, for treating:
It can be used orally or as eye drop (ophthalmic preparation).
As eye drop:
It is used in treatment of ocular Hypertension (increased pressure in the eye) and open-angle Glaucoma.
It works by decreasing Fluid production and pressure inside the eye and thus helps to prevent blindness.
Orally, it is used to treat:
High blood pressure
Chest Pain due to insufficient blood flow to the heart.
Complications seen after a heart attack
Prevent Migraine attacks.
Side Effects Of XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
Some of the common side-effects of latanoprost are:
- Darkening of the iris
- Redness of the eye, itchiness
- Blurry vision
Side Effects Of Salt: Timolol
Consult your doctor if any of the following severe side effects occurs:
As eye drop:
- Burning sensation, eye redness,
- Corneal numbness.
- Congestive heart failure
- Cardiac arrhythmias.
- Depression and confusion
Contraindications Of XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
Contraindications Of Salt: Latanoprost
Please inform your doctor if you have any of the following conditions:
- Currently active swelling in the eye
Contraindications Of Salt: Timolol
Please inform your doctor if you have any of the following conditions:
- Myasthenia Gravis ( weakness in the skeletal muscles those of those of the eyes, face)
- Diabetes, low blood sugar,
- Bronchial asthma
- Sinus bradycardia
- Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Ocular hypertension occurs when there is raised intra-ocular pressure (increased pressure in the eye). It is important to diagnose and treat ocular hypertension promptly, as it can progress to irreversible vision loss and glaucoma.
Ocular hypertension occurs when there is a problem with drainage of aqueous fluid from the anterior aspect of the eye. The ciliary bodies that surround the eye’s lens continually produce aqueous fluid. This fluid drains from the eye via a trabecular meshwork, and then enters the body's bloodstream. The balance between production and outflow of aqueous humour is critical in maintaining normal eye pressures. Vitreous humour present in the posterior chamber of the eye has a constant volume and does not have an effect on eye pressure.
Ocular hypertension is caused when there is an abnormality with production or outflow of aqueous fluid. The normal pressure of the eye is between 12 to 21 millimetres of mercury (mmHg). Ocular hypertension is an increase in ocular pressure with no evidence of concurrent visual loss or optic nerve damage.
Ocular hypertension may be present without any symptoms, so regular examination of eye pressures by an optometrist or ophthalmologist is recommended. Tonometry is the investigation performed to assess the eye’s pressure. Two readings above 21mmHg are sufficient to diagnose ocular hypertension.
People who have ocular hypertension are referred to as "suspects of glaucoma." Monitoring and management of pressures are needed to prevent optic nerve damage.
Glaucoma is an ophthalmic term that refers to a variety of conditions cause degeneration of the nerve that supplies visual impulses from the retina to the optic centres in the brain. This nerve is called the optic nerve.
There is two main types of glaucoma namely narrow (closed) and wide (open) angle glaucoma. Wide angle glaucoma is the commonest form of glaucoma and is present in up to ninety percent of cases. Up to 50 million people are affected by wide angle glaucoma worldwide.
The “angel” referred to in these conditions is the angle between the cornea and iris in the eye. The aqueous fluid of the eye drains through this angle. In wide angle glaucoma, the angle is open and not blocked, in contrast to closed angle glaucoma. Wide angle glaucoma causes a progressive decline in vision, often without any symptoms.
The eye has a specific pathway by which the aqueous humour (normal eye fluid) drains and circulates in the eye. Aqueous humour is produced by the ciliary processes around the lens of the eye. The humour is present between the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, while vitreous humour fills the posterior chamber of the eye.
Aqueous humour is responsible for the intra-ocular pressure (IOP), and to give the eye its typical spherical shape. The humour also contains nutritional and immunological structures to assist the anterior structures of the eye in maintaining healthy functioning.
The ciliary processes continually produce aqueous fluid. Aqueous fluid exits the eye via a trabecular meshwork that is located between the lens and the cornea of the eye. From this meshwork, it enters a canal called Schlimm’s canal, and then enters the body’s bloodstream.
Any small effect on ciliary fluid production or outflow of fluid can have a large impact on the pressure in the eye. The balance of production versus outflow is an important aspect of the cause and treatment of glaucoma.
Diagnosis of glaucoma is made with ophthalmic examinations. Tonometry is used to measure the pressure in the eye. A slit lamp examination will show changes to the optic nerve on the retina, called cupping. Cupping is characteristic of nerve damage due to glaucoma. Gonioscopy is used to assess the angle where aqueous fluid drains between the iris and cornea. Visual field testing is done to determine the areas where vision is affected.
Wide-angle glaucoma will show an open angle between the cornea and iris on gonioscopy.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly referred to as a heart attack. It is one of the biggest causes of unexpected death and is often discussed in the media. It is possible to treat a heart attack and prevent death if managed at the right time, which is why there is a lot of emphasis on educating the public on symptoms of heart attack.
An MI occurs when there is decreased blood flow to the heart. This usually occurs because of a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the heart. If the blood supply is decreased, it causes injury to the heart's muscle (myocardium).
The severity of a heart attack depends on which blood vessels are affected, how extensively the heart's muscle is injured, as well as on which of the heart's chambers are affected. If the ventricles (which contract and pump blood to the rest of the body) are affected, it has worse outcomes.
Death due to a heart attack is caused by cardiac arrest.
The first investigation done in chest pain is an ECG (Electrocardiogram). Leads are placed on the chest, and the electrical conduction of the heart is measured. Distinct patterns are suggestive of possible heart damage.
If heart damage is suspected, it is confirmed by blood tests that measure the heart enzymes in the blood. The blood tests done are called Creatine Kinase (CKMB), Troponin T and I, Myoglobin.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure in common language, is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
- Migraine is a result of some abnormal activities in the brain that cause a severe headache. This is accompanied by over-sensitivity to light, sound or particular kind of smells.
Symptoms Treated With XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
Ocular hypertension is usually asymptomatic until consequences such as ocular nerve injury or vision loss occur. Symptoms that may suggest raised intra-ocular pressure include peripheral vision loss, painful or red eyes.
In contrast to narrow-angle glaucoma, wide-angle glaucoma may be asymptomatic until later stages of the disease, when the visual impairment is already advanced. Symptoms include:
- Gradual decrease in vision over time
- Peripheral vision affected before central vision
- Painless vision loss
- May go unnoticed by the patient until visual loss is quite severe
A heart attack may present as chest pain (angina).
Symptoms of a heart attack may be atypical or typical. Other diseases may mimic the symptoms of a heart attack. It is important to have undiagnosed chest pain investigated by a doctor.
The typical symptoms of a heart attack are:
- Acute onset, sudden, severe left sided chest pain (pain usually >7/10)
- The pain typically lasts more than 20 minutes
- The nature of the pain is usually compressive (imagine an elephant standing on your chest)
- The pain may spread to the jaw, left or right arm or hand
- You may experience numbness or altered sensation (paraesthesia) in your hands, chest, or jaw.
- Accompanying symptoms include: Nausea and vomiting, dizziness, profuse sweating
- An MI may present with atypical symptoms like abdominal pain, indigestion, and back pain.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hypertension
High blood pressure in itself usually does not cause symptoms, but long term high blood pressure is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.
What Are The Symptoms Of Migraine
- Though not all the migraine pains are similar, few common symptoms are: moderate to severe throbbing pain in either side of the head, which increases during any physical activity, sweating, temperature change of the body, abdominal pain, nausea, pain in the eyes etc.. There may be sensitivity to noise, smell and light.
Causes of diseases where XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS is used
Ocular hypertension is caused when there is an imbalance between aqueous humour production and outflow. Many associated risk factors predispose to development of raised intraocular pressure. These include:
- Medications that increase intra-ocular pressure. Corticosteroids (systemic and topical) are the biggest culprits.
- Problems with aqueous humour outflow due to angle closure or damage to the trabecular meshwork in the anterior eye chamber.
- Inflammation of structures in the anterior and middle parts of the eye-Iritis or uveitis (infection of the iris or uvea).
- Congenital abnormalities of sight such as axial myopia (primary congenital glaucoma).
- Nearsightedness (myopia)
- The family history of glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
- Old age (increase in frequency seen over 40 years).
- Eye trauma
- Eye surgery may predispose to raised IOP. Cataract surgery is often implicated.
- Ethnicity- increased incidence in African descendants.
- Diabetes may predispose to raised IOP.
The exact mechanism by which open angle glaucoma is caused is still uncertain. Ocular hypertension is thought to be the biggest reason. Ocular hypertension means there is increased pressure in the eye. The increased pressure leads to damage of the optic nerve due to direct pressure effects and possible ischaemia (reduced blood flow to the nerve). Wide angle glaucoma may also occur without the presence of raised ocular pressure, in about fifty percent of cases.
Wide angle glaucoma is caused by a reduced drainage of aqueous humour through the trabecular meshwork. This is thought to be due to damage of the meshwork.
Certain factors may predispose to wide-angle glaucoma. These include systemic hypertension, diabetes and previous trauma to the eye or head. Medications such as systemic corticosteroids and hypertensive medications may also affect the flow of aqueous fluid.
Advanced age (above fifty years), family history (first-degree relative increases the chance by two to four times) and ethnicity (African Americans) are also associated risk factors for wide-angle glaucoma.
There are many reasons why the arteries in the heart may be damaged.
The commonest cause is atherosclerosis- hardening of the lining of blood vessels (endothelium), which may form clots or plaques, and eventually, over time may progress to block the blood vessels.
Smoking is a significant contributing factor to blood vessel damage as well as:
- High blood pressure
- Dyslipidemia (high cholesterol/abnormal blood "fat" levels)
- Lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyle
- Genetic factors or a family history of heart disease
- Illicit drug use- cocaine and other stimulants
- Age- men over 45 years and women over 55 years
- Ethnicity- MIs are more common in Caucasian and Indian populations.
People with a combination of the above factors are at highest risk of having a heart attack.
- Wrong life style, lack of physical activity
- Eating disorders
- Old age, over weight
- Too much of salt in diet, alcohol
What Are The Causes Of Migraine
Though real cause of migraine is still not known, possible causes could be:
- Central nervous disorder
- Genetic predispositions
- Abnormalities in brain chemical or nerve pathways
- Abnormalities in blood vessel system of brain, or vascular system.
- Things which can trigger the attack of migraine are skipping meals, salty foods, junk foods, hormonal changes, sensory triggers like exposure to light, noise or certain kinds of smells.
Worst Foods With XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
- Caffeine. Caffeine increases systemic and ocular pressure.
- Avoid consuming large amounts of fluids at one time as this may increase IOP. Smaller, more frequent intake of fluids is indicated.
- Foods high in saturated fatty acids- these cause imbalance in the body’s lipid balance, and lowers omega 3, which has beneficial effects on sight.
- Caffeine containing foods. Caffeine increases the IOP in the eye.
- Studies have shown that consuming large amounts of fluid such as water at one point in time may increase IOP. It is advisable for to have smaller amounts of fluid, more frequently during the day.
- High-fat food containing unsaturated fatty acids
- If you suffer from high blood pressure avoid foods that contain a high salt content. If you are diabetic, make sure to follow a low-carbohydrate diet and to control your blood sugar.
What Are The Worst Foods For Hypertension
- Limit your sodium intake to 1500 milligrams (less than one tablespoon) per day. Avoid foods like:
- Canned juices, processed foods
- Fatty food, oily food
- The more an item stays in food, the more sodium it accumulates. Canned foods need to stay longer and need preservatives. Salt is a good preservative, used in most of the canned foods. However, the longer a vegetable stays in salt, the more sodium it accumulates. Hence, it is always suggested to eat freshly cooked food, then frozen or pre-cooked food.
- Coffee: People who have low blood pressure are recommended coffee as it increases blood pressure. Those with high BP should immediately stop drinking coffee as it contains caffeine, the main culprit of hypertension.
- Alcohol: Having 3 drinks at a time can increase your blood pressure for a short while. Regularly drinking alcohol can result in long term hypertension.
What Are The Worst Foods For Migraine
Foods that trigger a migraine and other headaches and must be avoided are:
- Pickled, fermented or marinated foods contain Monosodium Glutamine (MSG), that stimulates a migraine
- Asian foods, especially the Chinese foods, contain MSG in the flavouring, so must be avoided
- Caffeine (chocolates, tea, coffee, sodas, energy drinks)
- Aged Cheese: Tyramine, a monoamine found in blue cheese, Parmesan, Cheddar induce a migraine. Smoked fish and sausages also contain the same
- Preservative Sodium Nitrate found in various fast foods must not be consumed
- Onions contain tyramine that induces a migraine
- Artificial sugar containing drinks must not be consumed
- Alcohol, the red wine specifically. Though beer and white wine can also lead to a migraine.
Do's With Usage of XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
- Cardiovascular exercise has shown to reduce IOP transiently
- Stress reduction methods like meditation and breathing exercises can help lower IOP.
- Relaxation exercises for eyes can be done. These include blinking the eyes every 3-4 seconds, especially when staring at screens like laptops, tablets or television for extended periods. Blinking reduces pressure in the eyes and helps it to relax.
- Strengthen your eye muscles: Draw an imaginary figure eight in the air and follow it with your eyes. Practice focusing on near and far objects e.g. hold your hand in front of your nose and alternately focus on your finger and a distant object.
What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Open angle glaucoma
- Have any visual disturbance or visual loss treated promptly. Glaucoma’s damage is progressive and irreversible.
- Exercise. Cardiovascular exercise has shown to decrease IOP by between 1 to 5 mmHg.
- Lose weight. Some studies suggest that a lower BMI may have a lowering effect on IOP.
- If you suffer from chronic medical conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure- make sure they are well controlled.
- Go for an annual checkup to screen for high blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol.
- Lower your alcohol intake.
- Reduce stress. Use techniques such as mindfulness and meditation. Find counselling to deal with stressful life events.
- Cardiovascular exercise.
What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Hypertension
- 30 minutes of yoga every day can help you reduce high blood pressure. Pranayama is the best yoga for controlling high BP.
- Do conscious breathing for 3o minutes every day.
- End your exercise with 5 minutes of Shavasana.
- Do the brisk walk for 30 minutes a day.
What Are The Things One Should Do To Manage Migraine
To relax from the migraine pain or other headaches, do the following:
- Lavender oil can be inhaled or applied directly to reduce the pain
- Peppermint oil stimulates a proper flow of oxygen into the bloodstream as this is the major cause of a migraine
- Basil oil relaxes the muscles and helps reduce a headache caused due to tension or tight muscles.
Dont's With Usage Of XALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
- Yoga has shown to increase IOP transiently. Avoid positions where the head is lower than the heart.
- Playing wind instruments such as clarinet, oboe, and trumpet also has transient increase pressure effects in the eye.
What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Open angle glaucoma
Do not smoke. Smoking has been shown to moderately increase IOP and predisposes to atherosclerotic disease of the ophthalmic vessels, which may have an additive effect on vision loss.
- Do not smoke. Smoke is one of the biggest causes of endothelium damage.
- Do not take an MI lightly if you had one. Serious lifestyle changes need to be addressed.
- Do not leave any form of chest pain undiagnosed or untreated.
What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Hypertension
- Do not stay awake till long. Have adequate sleep.
- Reduce stress, avoid stressful situations.
- Reduce weight, if you are obese.
What Are The Things One Should Avoid To Manage Migraine
- Don’t spend too much time in front of the computer, mobile or any other electronic gadget.
Other Useful Tips With Usage OfXALACOM 50 MCG/ML EYE DROPS
Recommended 3-5 yearly screening for wide angle glaucoma is suggested in patients who are at risk above the age of forty years.
High dose omega 3, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium decrease inflammation and to help prevent cardiovascular damage. Discuss with your doctor before taking.
What Are The Tips For Migraine
Lifestyle Changes to prevent the migraine pains:
- Have a proper sleep cycle with fixed sleeping and waking up time
- Regular Exercise
- Consume regular meals, as the dip in the sugar level, can be a cause of a migraine
- Drink adequate amount of water as dehydration can also be a cause of a migraine
- Stress is a major cause of a migraine, de-stress yourself through meditation, yoga, calm music or walk
- Additional therapies along with prescription like acupuncture, massage, and talk therapy can help reduce the ailment.